A number of scales have been developed to assess body image dissatisfaction in physical diseases,12,13 but none has been tested or validated in an IBD population. Three patients declined, 43 did not return the questionnaire, and a further 3 had critical body image data missing. Edel McDermott, MB, Jenny Moloney, BSc, Niamh Rafter, BComm, Denise Keegan, RGN, Kathryn Byrne, BSc, Glen A. Doherty, PhD, Garret Cullen, MD, Kevin Malone, MD, Hugh E. Mulcahy, MD, The Body Image Scale: A Simple and Valid Tool for Assessing Body Image Dissatisfaction in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Volume 20, Issue 2, 1 February 2014, Pages 286–290, https://doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000438246.68476.c4. Correlation between the modified body image scale and the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ) in 338 patients with IBD. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) carries a distinct psychosocial and a physical burden, but body image has not been formally assessed in patients with IBD, nor is there a validated body image questionnaire. My ears                                                                   1          2          3          4          5, 10. Cash TF, Phillips KA, Santos MT, et al. Construct validity was tested using a combination of validation techniques. It has 35 items (such as "scent" or "nose") that need to be rated on a 5 point scale, ranging from strong negative feelings to strong positive feelings. My My hands                                                                0          1          2          3          4, 13. thighs                                                                0          1          2          3          4, 3. Possible scores range from 1 to 9, and higher scores indicate more positive body image. We performed known group comparisons (predictive validity) by comparing body image scores in males and females, and in patients who had no previous surgery, nonstoma, or stoma forming surgery with the expectation that both gender and surgery would influence a valid body image scoring system.2,10,16 Thirty-eight patients, whose treatment remained unchanged, completed the body image scale, a median of 11 months (range, 2 wk–18 mo) apart to determine test–retest reliability. Body image dissatisfaction is experienced by many individuals in the normal population, and is increased by the physical and functional changes of chronic disease states.17 IBD frequently develops in young adults and seems to be associated with body image impairment in many patients. Assessing body image in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): validation of the adapted satisfaction with appearance Scale. Right Third, as advocated by survey design experts,18,19 it is needed to be simple and quick to complete and have a standardized format with unambiguous questions throughout, so that it could be self-administered by patients with a range of educational abilities. The Body Image States Scale (BISS) has six items that are used to assess and individual’s evaluative and affective body image state at a given moment in time (Cash, 2008). Using computer generated bodies improves on the drawn stimuli used in previous figure rating scales (e.g., Stunkard et al., 1983; Thompson & Gray, 1995). Three hundred thirty-eight ambulatory patients (median age, 36; 174 male) completed a questionnaire that included the Hopwood body image scale adapted from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group. Figure 3 shows the frequency of total body image scores. My legs                                                                   0          1          2          3          4, 7. Several definitions state that body image has a multidimensional structure with emotional, thought, and behavioral elements. It is interesting that this is the only question that relates to patients' interactions with others rather than personal perceptions about body image, and the low positive response rate may relate to the lack of readily noticeable signs of disease or functional changes in most patients. These assessed dissatisfaction related to body odor and noise, both potentially pertinent to our patient population. The State Mindfulness Scale (SMS) was designed to address the lack of state mindfulness measurements in psychological literature and is based on the MAAS (Brown & Ryan, 2003). My This can be negatively influenced by a number of factors including disease states and treatments. . My ears                                                                   0          1          2          3          4, 10. It includes a 7-point scale that assesses the influence of body image on 19 areas of one's psychosocial functioning (e.g., day-to-day emotions, sexuality, self-confidence, grooming habits, etc.) buttocks                                                            0          1          2          3          4, 4. Reliability was confirmed with a test–retest correlation of 0.82 (P < 0.001). Traits Anxiety Scale (PASTAS):  State . BAS items are rated along a 5-point scale (i.e., 1 = never, 2=seldom,3=sometimes,4=often,5=always) and are averaged to obtain an overall body appreciation score. However, it should be noted that the questionnaire is not valid in normal individuals because 4 of the 9 questions relate specifically to disease and treatment. measure of body image that has two comparable versions which can be used with both females and males. Brief word instructions: Point to each face using the words to describe the pain intensity. My A normal individual's body image is thought to be influenced by many factors including gender, personality type, and cultural and social norms. The need exists for a psychometrically sound measure of individuals' evaluative/affective body image states. To determine a subject’s score for a particular subscale of the Body Esteem Scale, simply add up the individual scores for items on the subscale. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. Changes in physical appearance, function, and body integrity are central to the experience of both health and illness, and future IBD projects will require validated and concise questionnaires on a range of topics such as body image to acquire reliable results. statements listed below are to be used to describe how anxious, tense, or Figure 2 shows the response prevalence to individual questions. buttocks                                                            1          2          3          4          5, 4. Data from another scale, the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, were also collected in addition to demographic and clinical data. affected body image. The study therefore included 338 patients whose demographic and clinical details are shown in Table 1. Hopwood P, Fletcher I, Lee A, Al Ghazal S. A body image scale for use with cancer patients. Two scales were employed in this study to measure body image state. Body Image Survey Scoring Instrument (Cont’d) 12. We therefore excluded this question. Hopwood P, Fletcher I, Lee A, et al. extent to which I look overweight                    0          1          2          3          4, 2. Moreira H, Silva S, Marques A, et al. These items were deemed to be measuring a different construct, and were excluded from the modified scale. A better understanding of the appreciation for one’s body, the higher the prediction of behaviors that can become problematic in various populations. The Body Esteem Scale by Franzoi and Shields (1984) is a popular scale. The The Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS) is a frequently used, standardized assessment of evaluative body image, albeit one that does not use differential item weights. My forehead                                                            0          1          2          3          4, 14. My This scale, one of the scales intended to measure state mindfulness, was created by Tanay and Bernstein in 2013 and has been cited in positive psychological research. My lips                                                                    1          2          3          4          5, 11. of your body. Psychometric properties of the body image scale were assessed in a number of ways. Responsiveness has previously been demonstrated in the original development of the scale with a significant increase in the reporting of body image dissatisfaction after surgery,14 but responsiveness in patients with IBD will require a longitudinal study of patients either undergoing changes to their medical treatment or surgery. Test–retest reliability was demonstrated between body image scores performed a median of 11 months apart (range, 2 wk–18 mo) (rs, 0.82; P < 0.001 Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). We sought to identify a body image tool that met specific requirements. Using feminist theory about the social construction of the female body, a scale was developed and validated to measure objectified body consciousness (OBC) in young women (N= 502) and middle‐aged women (N= 151).Scales used were (a) surveillance (viewing the body as an outside observer), (b) body shame (feeling shame when the body does not conform), and (c) … We therefore considered it a suitable candidate tool for use in patients with IBD in whom both the primary disease and its treatment might be expected to play a part in overall body image dissatisfaction. My forehead                                                            1          2          3          4          5, 14. One such study is ongoing in our institution. Developed 25 years ago by Don Henneke, PhD, as part of his doctoral research, the BCS scale ranges from 1 (poor) to 9 (obese). The score is achieved by summing the 9 items. The body condition score (BCS) system offers an objective method of estimating a horse's body fat levels. The Portuguese version of the body image scale (BIS)—psychometric properties in a sample of breast cancer patients, Assessment of body image in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer, Enhancing quality of life in medical populations: a vision for body image assessment and rehabilitation as standards of care. It has been tested and validated on a broad range of cancer patients, and coverage has proved acceptable to both male and female patients with a range of body image concerns.14,15 The scale is not specific to any 1 disease and focuses on the effects of both disease and treatment on body image. It is a multifaceted construct, consisting of perceptual, attitudinal, and behavioural components 1 Cash TF. The Preoperative body-related emotional distress and culture as predictors of outcomes of bariatric surgery. each statement holds true in general. Whistance RN, Gilbert R, Fayers P, et al. 1). As an example, 30% of patients answered “Not at all” to question 1, whereas 43%, 17%, and 10% answered “A little,” “Quite a lot,” and “Very much,” respectively. Ask the child The format for the Body Esteem Scale includes 35 items using 17 items from the Body Cathexis Scale and 16 new items. The Body Image States Scale (BISS) is a six-item measure of individuals’ evaluation and affect about their physical appearance at a particular moment in time. Continuous data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Figure 5 shows the association between body image, gender, and previous surgery. The purpose of this study was to measure body image distortion using an online visual scale which included 9 figures representing different body sizes. Remember there are no right or wrong answers. Patients completed a self-administered questionnaire that included a modified body image scale by Hopwood et al.14 This scale was designed as a brief self-report measure in conjunction with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group. Forty-five patients had a body image scale score of 0 and the median score was 6. Question 7, “Do you avoid people because of the way you feel about your appearance?” received the lowest positive response rate at 28%. My waist                                                                 1          2          3          4          5, 8. METHODS: A 14-item survey using the Body Image States Scale (BISS), with questions related to sex, age, height, weight, and exercise participation, was completed for body image analysis, determining significant differences between students. Two-thirds of respondents reported body image impairment as a result of their disease, and the authors emphasized the importance of body image in IBD and the need for further research. Finally, it is frequently stated that IBD may lead to significant physical and psychological comorbidity. . Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals’ acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. A need was identified to develop a short body image scale (BIS) for use in clinical trials. The original scale included a question “Have you been dissatisfied with the appearance of your scar?”. Overall, 8 of the 9 questions achieved the recommended 30% response rate with question 7 achieving a 28% positive response rate. Body image refers to a persons' sense of their own physical appearance. Muller KR, Prosser R, Bampton P, et al. In addition, from a research perspective, body image assessments might usefully be employed as secondary endpoints in medical and surgical clinical trials, providing a deeper understanding of the subtle quality of life changes that occur as a result of different interventions. Correlations were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The Impact of Introducing Patient-Reported Inflammatory Bowel Disease Symptoms via Electronic Survey on Clinic Visit Length, Patient and Provider Satisfaction, and the Environment Microbiome, Phenotype and Natural History of Children With Coexistent Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Celiac Disease, Association of Baseline Luminal Narrowing With Ileal Microbial Shifts and Gene Expression Programs and Subsequent Transmural Healing in Pediatric Crohn Disease, Medical Management Following Surgical Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evidence from Cochrane Reviews, https://doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000438246.68476.c4, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Body Image Dissatisfaction in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Body Image Dissatisfaction: Clinical Features, and Psychosocial Disability in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Getting Personal: A Review of Sexual Functioning, Body Image, and Their Impact on Quality of Life in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of an Oral Dose of (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate–Rich Polyphenon E in Patients With Mild to Moderate Ulcerative Colitis. each statement and circle the number that best indicates the extent to which The modified body image scale is a valid tool for assessing body image in patients with IBD. Body image has a major influence on social interactions and relationships, and individuals with a negative body image may experience feelings of shame, embarrassment, and anxiety about their physical appearance. The Body Esteem Scale (BES; Franzoi & Shields, 1984) measures satisfaction with various aspects of the body. Survey samples were The BAS or Body Appreciation Scale is another measure of body image. Evincing its convergent validity, the BISS was appropriately correlated with various trait measures of body image. First, the questions needed to focus on body image satisfaction, rather than psychological or cognitive behavior, to facilitate its use by gastroenterologists and provide a clear message for clinicians to understand and interpret. The Cosmetic Procedure Screening Scale (COPS) The COPS is a self-report scale designed to screen for symptoms of BDD in cosmetic settings. The authors also thank Dr. Penelope Hopwood for permission to use the body image scale and Ms. Margaret McDermott for her helpful comments during manuscript preparation. The ideal body image is represented as a predominantly thin, able-bodied young Anglo woman. However, factor analysis revealed that these additional items formed a separate factor, reduced predictive ability when compared with the original scale and reduced internal reliability. Higher scores reflect greater body appreciation. . Yes No Score 0 1 13. Methods: Participants (N = 459) ranged in age from 18 My lips                                                                    0          1          2          3          4, 11. Body image refers to how we think about, feel and act towards our body. In the development of the original scale, Hopwood et al14 described the process of item generation and scale construction, using “the literature, discussion with health professionals, and extensive interviews with breast cancer patients.” We assessed content validity of the scale in our IBD population with a team of multidisciplinary health care professionals involved in the care of patients with IBD. The BISS … body (use the following scale). My neck                                                                  1          2          3          4          5, 15. My feet                                                                    0          1          2          3          4, Sign in|Recent Site Activity|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites, Physical Appearance State and Trait Anxiety Scale - State and Trait Versions (PASTAS), Compensatory Eating Behaviors Related to Alcohol Consumption (CEBRACS), Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale (FNAES), Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale (FOPAS), Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS), Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R), Physical Appearance Reasons for Tanning Scale (PARTS), Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3), Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4), Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS), Reed et al (1991) - Development and Validation of the Physical Appearance State and Trait Anxiety Scale (PASTAS).pdf. In terms of scoring, the first step is to examine any responses provided under ‘‘other’’ to determine whether they are equivalent to a body part provided in the list. After approval of your purchase by charge card or by PayPal on our secure server, you will receive your materials as email attachments within 72 weekday hours. Oyekcin DG, Gulpek D, Sahin EM, et al. This particular scale is closely compared with the Body Cathexis Scale. Version. Resident Physician in Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Copyright © 2021 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation. The Body Image States Scale105. . My neck                                                                  0          1          2          3          4, 15. Figure 4 shows the association between the modified Body Image Scale and the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. stomach                                                             0          1          2          3          4, 6. The need exists for a psychometrically sound measure of individuals' evaluative/affective body image states. Version. hurts as much as you can image, although you don’t have to be crying to feel this bad. El Ansari W, Clausen SV, Mabhala A, et al. The References Franzoi, S.L. Body Mass Index (BMI; kg weight/m2height) averaged 25.0 (SD= 4.1) for men and 24.7 (SD= 6.3) for women. The emerging role of mood disorders in inflammatory bowel diseases. My These body images tend to reflect thin, Anglo American women, from a middle to upper class status, as the norm of healthy and beautiful (Abrams and Stormer, 2002). For example, for female sexual attractiveness, you would add up the subject’s ratings of the items comprising the sexual attractiveness subscale (13 items). Yet the extensive data underpinning these beliefs are incomplete, insofar as no single study has integrated broad biological and psychosocial strands to assess the range of IBD comorbidities and determine their interactions. (1994). Traits Anxiety Scale (PASTAS):  Trait Our aim was to assess and validate a body image questionnaire for patients with IBD. The scale has been adapted in many languages and utilized to study body image and cultural influence in many countries. What are the potential uses for an IBD body image scale? Females (P < 0.001) and those who had undergone either stoma or nonstoma forming surgery experienced more body image dissatisfaction (P = 0.002), indicating predictive validity. stomach                                                             1          2          3          4          5, 6. My hips                                                                   0          1          2          3          4, 5. My We found a close correlation between our modified 9-item scale and the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, thus establishing convergent validity. Females tended to experience more body image dissatisfaction than males (P < 0.001), whereas patients who had undergone either nonstoma or stoma forming surgery also tended to have higher dissatisfaction scores on the Body Image Scale (P = 0.002). nervous you feel in general (i.e., usually) about your body or specific parts Convergent validity was established with a correlation coefficient of 0.64 (P < 0.001) with the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. My wrists                                                                1          2          3          4          5, 12. Body Comparison Scale (BCS) For the items below, use the following scale to rate how often you compare these aspects of your body to those of other individuals of the same sex. The Body Image Scale largely fulfills the above criteria. . Although body image issues are clearly important to patients with IBD, study is hampered by the absence of a suitable assessment tool to collect standardized data. Body image was evaluated by using the Body Image Scale (BIS) [22], a ten-item scale with four possible responses: 0 (not at all), 1 (a little), 2 (quite a bit), and 3 (very much). Cognitive-behavioral perspectives on body image. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine factors independently associated with body image dissatisfaction. My hips                                                                   1          2          3          4          5, 5. My We modified Hopwood's original 10-item questionnaire by excluding the question “Have you been dissatisfied with the appearance of your scar?” as described in the methods section above. Divided by the three different factes, they found an average of 25 for Performance (range 7 to 35) and Social (range 7 to 35), and 20 on Appearance (range 6 to 30). Works by this author on: body image Disturbance Questionnaire 's rank correlation coefficient a short image... 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Cancer patients: body image distortion using an online visual scale which included 9 figures representing body. Potential uses for an IBD body image with levels above 0.7 reflecting high levels consistency. Act towards our body have undergone operation, since those not having had surgery necessarily score zero above criteria states! A low score indicates a negative ( −3 body image states scale scoring to positive ( ).